Multiple Intelligence theory
What has become a powerful force in the world of
education all started in 1983, when Harvard University professor Howard
Gardner started writing his book "Frames of Mind: The Theory of
Multiple Intelligences with some simple but very powerful questions,
viz., are talented chess players, violinists, and athletes 'intelligent'
in their respective disciplines? Why these and other abilities are not
accounted for on traditional IQ tests? Why is the term intelligence
limited to such a narrow range of human endeavours?
questions emerged the multiple intelligence theory. In simple words, it
challenges psychology's definition of intelligence as a general ability
that can be measured by a single IQ score. Instead, MI theory describes
eight intelligences (see below) that people use to solve problems and
create products relevant to the societies in which they live.
intelligence theory asserts that individuals with a high level of
aptitude in a particular type of intelligence do not necessarily have a
similar aptitude in any other type of intelligence. For example, a
young person who demonstrates an impressive level of musical
intelligence may be far less skilled when it comes to bodily-kinesthetic
or logical-mathematical intelligence. Perhaps this seems obvious, but
it's important to recognize that this notion stands in sharp contrast to
the traditional (and still dominant) view of intelligence as a general
ability that can be measured along a single scale and summarized by a
||Eight Kinds of
People with verbal-linguistic intelligence
display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good
at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with
dates. They tend to learn best by reading, taking notes, listening
to lectures, and discussion and debate. They are also frequently
skilled at explaining, teaching and oration or persuasive speaking.
Those with verbal-linguistic intelligence learn foreign languages
very easily as they have high verbal memory and recall, and an
ability to understand and manipulate syntax and structure.
People who have this intelligence usually
enjoy acting or performing, and in general they are good at building
and making things. They often learn best by physically doing
something, rather than reading or hearing about it. Those with
strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence seem to use what might be
termed muscle memory. They remember things through their body such
as verbal memory or images. They require fine motor skills that are
required for dancing, athletics, surgery, craft and other movement
People with strong visual-spatial intelligence
are typically very good at visualizing and mentally manipulating
objects. Those with strong spatial intelligence are often proficient
at solving puzzles. They have a strong visual memory and are often
artistically inclined. Those with visual-spatial intelligence are
also generally have a very good sense of direction and may also have
very good hand-eye coordination.
This area has to do with logic, abstractions,
reasoning, and numbers. While it is often assumed that those with
this intelligence naturally excel in mathematics, chess, computer
programming and other logical or numerical activities, a more
accurate definition places emphasis on traditional mathematical
ability and more reasoning capabilities, abstract patterns of
recognition, scientific thinking and investigation, and the ability
to perform complex calculations.
People in this category are usually extroverts
and are characterized by their sensitivity to others' moods,
feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to
cooperate in order to work as part of a group. They communicate
effectively and empathize easily with others, and may be either
leaders or followers. They typically learn best by working with
others and often enjoy discussion and debate.
Those who are strongest in this intelligence
are typically introverts and prefer to work alone. They are usually
highly self-aware and capable of understanding their own emotions,
goals and motivations. They learn best when allowed to concentrate
on the subject by themselves. There is often a high level of
perfectionism associated with this intelligence.
Those who have a high level of
musical-rhythmic intelligence display greater sensitivity to sounds,
rhythms, tones, and music. They normally have good pitch and may
even have absolute pitch, and are able to sing, play musical
instruments, and compose music.
Since there is a strong
auditory component to this intelligence, those who are strongest in
it may learn best via lecture. In addition, they will often use
songs or rhythms to learn and memorize information, and may work
best with music playing in the background.
Those with it are said to have greater
sensitivity to nature and their place within it, the ability to
nurture and grow things, and greater ease in caring for, taming and
interacting with animals. They may also be able to discern changes
in weather or similar fluctuations in their natural surroundings.
They are also good at recognizing and classifying
different species. "Naturalists" learn best when the
subject involves collecting and analyzing, or is closely related to
something prominent in nature. It is advised that naturalistic
learners would learn more through being outside or in a kinesthetic